**Syllabus for 1st and 2nd Semester**

According to Punjab Technical University, syllabus scheme for Btech 1st year for all branches are same.

To download the syllabus of Btech 1st year pdf, **Click Here**

__Data Structure and Algorithms:-__

**Module 1: Introduction:-**Basic Terminologies:Elementary Data Organizations, Data Structure Operations: insertion, deletion, traversal etc.; Analysis of an Algorithm, Asymptotic Notations, Time-Space trade off.

**Searching: **Linear Search and Binary Search Techniques and their complexity analysis.

**Module 2: Stacks and Queues** ADT Stack and its operations: Algorithms and their complexity analysis, Applications of Stacks: Expression Conversion and evaluation – corresponding algorithms and complexity analysis. ADT queue, Types of Queue: Simple Queue, Circular Queue, Priority Queue; Operations on each types of Queues: Algorithms and their analysis.

**Module 3: Linked Lists** Singly linked lists: Representation in memory, Algorithms of several operations: Traversing, Searching, Insertion into, Deletion from linked list; Linked representation of Stack and Queue, Header nodes, Doubly linked list: operations on it and algorithmic analysis; Circular Linked Lists: All operations their algorithms and the complexity analysis.

**Trees:** Basic Tree Terminologies, Different types of Trees: Binary Tree, Threaded Binary Tree, Binary Search Tree, AVL Tree; Tree operations on each of the trees and their algorithms with complexity analysis. Applications of Binary Trees. B Tree, B+ Tree: definitions, algorithms and analysis.

**Module 4: Sorting and Hashing** Objective and properties of different sorting algorithms: Selection Sort, Bubble Sort, Insertion Sort, Quick Sort, Merge Sort, Heap Sort; Performance and Comparison among all the methods, Hashing.

**Module 4: Graph** Basic Terminologies and Representations, Graph search and traversal algorithms and complexity analysis.

__Object Oriented Programming__

**Module 1: Introduction** :

Overview of C++, Sample C++ program, Different data types, operators, expressions, and statements, arrays and strings, pointers & function components, recursive functions, user - defined types, function overloading, inline functions, Classes & Objects – I: classes, Scope resolution operator, passing objects as arguments, returning objects, and object assignment.**Module 2: Classes & Objects –II:**

Constructors, Destructors, friend functions, Parameterized constructors, Static data members, Functions, Arrays of objects, Pointers to objects, this pointer, and reference parameter, Dynamic allocation of objects, Copyconstructors, Operator overloading using friend functions, overloading.**Module 3: Inheritance:**

Base Class, Inheritance and protected members, Protected base class inheritance, Inheriting multiple base classes, Constructors, Destructors and Inheritance, Passing parameters to base class constructors, Granting access, Virtual base classes.**Module 4: Virtual functions, Polymorphism:**

Virtual function, calling a Virtual function through a base class reference, Virtual attribute is inherited, Virtual functions are hierarchical, pure virtual functions, Abstract classes, Using virtual functions, Early and late binding.**Module 5: Exception Handling:**

Basics of exception handling, exception handling mechanism, throwing mechanism, catching mechanism, I/O System Basics, File I/0: Exception handling fundamentals, Exception handling options. C++ stream classes, Formatted I/O, fstream and the File classes, Opening and closing a file, Reading and writing text files.

__Mathematics Paper-III__

**Module 1:** Limit, continuity for functions with severable variables, partial derivatives, total derivative, Maxima, minima and saddle points; Method of Lagrange multipliers, Multiple Integration: double and triple integrals (Cartesian and polar), Change of order of integration in double integrals, Change of variables (Cartesian to polar), Applications of double and triple integrals to find surface area and volumes.

**Module 2:** Sequence and series, Bolzano Weirstrass Theorem, Cauchy convergence criterion for sequence, uniform convergence, convergence of positive term series: comparison test, limit comparison test, D’Alembert’s ratio test, Raabe’s test, Cauchy root test, p-test, Cauchy integral test, logarithmic test, Alternating series, Leibnitz test, Power series, Taylor's series, Series for exponential, trigonometric and logarithmic functions.

**Module 3:** Exact, linear and Bernoulli’s equations, Euler’s equations, Equations not of first degree: equations solvable for p, equations solvable for y, equations solvable for x and Clairaut’s type.

**Module 4:** Second and higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Equations reducible to linear equations with constant coefficients: Cauchy and Legendre’s equations.

__Digital Electronics__

**Module 1: NUMBER SYSTEMS:**

** **Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal. Number base conversions, 1’s, 2’s complements, signed Binary numbers. Binary Arithmetic, Binary codes: Weighted BCD, Gray code, Excess 3 code, ASCII. LOGIC GATES: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR. Implementations of Logic Functions using gates, NAND-NOR implementations.**Module 2 : BOOLEAN ALGEBRA:**

Boolean postulates and laws – De-Morgan’s Theorem, Principle of Duality, Boolean expression – Boolean function, Minimization of Boolean expressions – Sum of Products (SOP), Product of Sums (POS), Minterm, Maxterm, Canonical forms, Conversion between canonical forms, Karnaugh map Minimization, Don’t care conditions, Quine-McCluskey method.**Module 3: COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS:**

Design procedure – Adders, Subtractors, BCD adder, Magnitude Comparator, Multiplexer/Demultiplexer, encoder/decoder, parity checker, code converters. Implementation of combinational logic using MUX, BCD to 7 segment decoder. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS: Flip flops SR, JK, T, D and Master slave, Excitation table, Edge triggering, Level Triggering, Realization of one flip flop using other flip flops. Asynchronous/Ripple counters, Synchronous counters, Modulo-n counter, Ring Counters. Design of Synchronous counters: state diagram, Circuit implementation. Shift registers.**Module 4: MEMORY DEVICES:**

Classification of memories, RAM organization, Write operation, Read operation, Memory cycle. ROM organization, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Programmable logic array, Programmable array logic, complex Programmable logic devices (CPLDS), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).**A/D & D/A CONVERTORS :**

Analog & Digital signals. sample and hold circuit, A/D and D/A conversion techniques (Weighted type, R-2R Ladder type, Counter Type, Dual Slope type, Successive Approximation type).

__Computer Organization & Architecture__

**Module 1: Functional blocks of a computer:**

CPU, memory, input-output subsystems, control unit. Instruction set architecture of a CPU – registers, instruction execution cycle, RTL interpretation of instructions, addressing modes, instruction set. Case study – instruction set of 8085 processor. Data representation: signed number representation, fixed and floating point representations, character representation. Computer arithmetic – integer addition and subtraction, ripple carry adder, carry look-ahead adder, etc. multiplication – shift-and add, Booth multiplier, carry save multiplier, etc. Division restoring and non-restoring techniques, floating point arithmetic.**Module 2: Introduction to x86 architecture:**

CPU control unit design: Hardwired and micro-programmed design approaches, Case study – design of a simple hypothetical CPU. Memory system design: semiconductor memory technologies, memory organization. Peripheral devices and their characteristics: Input-output subsystems, I/O device interface, I/O transfers – program controlled, interrupt driven and DMA, privileged and non-privileged instructions, software interrupts and exceptions. Programs and processes –role of interrupts in process state transitions, I/O device interfaces – SCII, USB.**Module 3: Pipelining:**

Basic concepts of pipelining, throughput and speedup, pipeline hazards. Parallel Processors: Introduction to parallel processors, Concurrent access to memory and cache coherency.**Module 4: Memory Organization:**

Memory interleaving, concept of hierarchical memory organization, cache memory, cache size vs. block size, mapping functions, replacement algorithms, write policies.

__Operating Systems__

**Module 1: Introduction:**

Concept of Operating Systems, Generations of Operating systems, Types of Operating Systems, OS Services, System Calls, Structure of an OS – Layered, Monolithic, Micro kernel Operating Systems, Concept of Virtual Machine. Case study on UNIX and WINDOWS Operating System.**Module 2: Processes:**

Definition, Process Relationship, Different states of a Process, Process State transitions, Process Control Block (PCB), Context switching **Thread:** Definition, Various states, Benefits of threads, Types of threads, Concept of multi threads, **Process Scheduling:** Foundation and Scheduling objectives, Types of Schedulers, Scheduling criteria: CPU utilization, Throughput, Turnaround Time, Waiting Time, Response Time; Scheduling algorithms: Pre-emptive and Non-pre-emptive, FCFS, SJF, RR; Multiprocessor scheduling: Real Time scheduling: RM and EDF.**Module 3: Inter-process Communication:**

Critical Section, Race Conditions, Mutual Exclusion, Hardware Solution, Strict Alternation, Peterson’s Solution, The ProducerConsumer Problem, Semaphores,Event Counters,Monitors, Message Passing, Classical IPC Problems: Reader’s & Writer Problem, Dinning Philosopher Problem etc.**Module 4: Deadlocks:**

Definition, Necessary and sufficient conditions for Deadlock, Deadlock Prevention, Deadlock Avoidance: Banker’s algorithm, Deadlock detection and Recovery.**Module 5: Memory Management:**

Basic concept,Logical and Physical address map, Memory allocation: Contiguous Memory allocation –Fixed and variable partition–Internal and External fragmentation and Compaction; Paging: Principle of operation – Page allocation–Hardware support for paging, Protection and sharing, Disadvantages of paging.**Virtual Memory: **Basics of Virtual Memory – Hardware and control structures – Locality of reference, Page fault, Working Set, Dirty page/Dirty bit – Demand paging, Page Replacement algorithms: Optimal, First in First Out (FIFO), Second Chance (SC), Not recently used (NRU) and Least Recently used (LRU).**Module 6: I/O Hardware:**

I/O devices, Device controllers, Direct memory access Principles of I/O Software: Goals of Interrupt handlers, Device drivers, Device independent I/O software, Secondary-Storage Structure: Disk structure, Disk scheduling algorithms**File Management:** Concept of File, Access methods, File types, File operation, Directory structure, File System structure, Allocation methods (contiguous, linked, indexed), Free Space Management (bit vector, linked list, grouping), directory implementation (linear list, hash table), efficiency and performance.**Disk Management:** Disk structure, Disk scheduling – FCFS, SSTF, SCAN, C-SCAN, Disk reliability, Disk formatting, Boot-block, Bad blocks.

__Design and Analysis of Algorithms__

**Module 1: Introduction**

Characteristics of algorithm. Analysis of algorithm: Asymptotic analysis of complexity bounds – best, average and worst-case behavior; Performance measurements of Algorithm, Time and space trade-offs, Analysis of recursive algorithms through recurrence relations: Substitution method, Recursion tree method and Masters’ theorem.**Module 2: Fundamental Algorithmic Strategies**

Brute-Force, Greedy,Dynamic Programming, Branch- and-Bound and Backtracking methodologies for the design of algorithms; Illustrations of these techniques for Problem-Solving: Bin Packing, Knap Sack, TSP.**Module 3: Graph and Tree Algorithms.**

**Traversal algorithms:** Depth First Search (DFS) and Breadth First Search (BFS); Shortest path algorithms, Transitive closure, Minimum Spanning Tree, Topological sorting, Network Flow Algorithm.**Module 4: Tractable and Intractable: Problems** Computability of Algorithms, Computability classes – P, NP, NP-complete and NP-hard. Cook’s theorem, Standard NP-complete problems and Reduction techniques.**Module 5: Advanced Topics:**

Approximation algorithms, Randomized algorithms, Heuristics and their characteristics.

**The new syllabus has not been updated yet by the PTU. As soon as syllabus will be updated by the university, we will update this too.**

**The new syllabus has not been updated yet by the PTU. As soon as syllabus will be updated by the university, we will update this too.**

**The new syllabus has not been updated yet by the PTU. As soon as syllabus will be updated by the university, we will update this too.**

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